So I started a new job recently (woo!) and have been going through my rites of passage, namely cleaning the dust bunnies out of my cubicle, raiding the supply closet for pens and notepads I’ll probably never use, and installing my favorite software on my workstation. I’ve developed a lot of tools over the years, and I use a number of unpublished or development versions of R packages as part of my regular workflow. Getting Git set up typically happens right after installing my favorite IDE (which these days is Visual Studio and its Data Science workload). Barring any complications with getting administrator rights on my work computer, setting up Visual Studio and Git is straightforward.
Imagine my surprise, then, when I tried to clone one of my Github repositories and instead got the following error:
fatal: unable to access ‘[repo name]’: SSL certificate problem: self signed certificate in certificate chain
What the heck?
Okay, so the message is at the same time clear and not-clear: my organization uses self-signed certificates (pretty normal) and it’s interfering with Git (pretty weird). So what do I do about it?
It took a few rounds of googling, but I eventually figured out that I had to manually add my organization’s self-signed certificates to the certificate library used by Git. Doing this required three things: (1) access to the Git command prompt, e.g. by installing Git for Windows, (2) Access to the Microsoft Management Console, and (3) a text editor. I cobbled together the procedure below from two unrelated help pages (one, two).
The first thing you need to do is figure out what certificates are actually causing the problem. You can get a good idea by going to the Git prompt and typing
openssl s_client -connect www.github.com:443
This will output a bunch of crud, but you’ll get a non-zero return
code (I got 19) and buried in the output will be references to the
offending self-signed certificates. The next step is to actually find
the certificates on your machine. You can do this with the Microsoft
Management Console (type
mmc in the command prompt).
Open the Microsoft Management Console and add the “Certificates” snap-in
via File–>Add/Remove Snap-ins, then select “Certificates” from the
list of available snap-ins and specify “Computer account”. This adds a
directory in the tree on the left-hand side of the console. From here
it’s a game of hide-and-seek; I found the certificate I was looking for
in Trusted Root Certification authorities/Certificates but your might live
Once you find your certificate, you need to export it. Specifically, you need to export it in format Base-64 encoded X.509 (.CER). Save the file wherever you want, we’ll be done with it in a minute.
Open up the exported certificate with notepad (or even better, notepad++) and you’ll see something like
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- ...a bunch of garbage... -----END CERTIFICATE-----
This is the certificate in all its textual glory. The final step is to
manually add this certificate to your list of trusted certificates.
First, find your certificate library. It’s probably somewhere like
C:\Program Files\Git\usr\ssl\certs\ca-bundle.crt, but you can find it
by going to the Git prompt and entering the command
git config --global http.sslCAInfo
which will return the path of the certificate library Git uses. Find this file and open it up in notepad; You’ll see a number of blocks like the one above. Simply paste the contents of the self-signed certificate into this file and save it.
Once I added the self-signed certificate to the certificates library, cloning and pushing to repositories started working normally. Crisis averted! Now back to the dust bunnies…